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Full text of "The North Carolina Symphony teachers handbook .."

The North Carolina Symphony 

Teachers Handbook 

1995-1996 

50th Anniversary Tour 



The North Carolina Symphony 

Teachers Handbook 

1995-1996 

50th Anniversary Tour 

Pei-An Betty Shih, Editor 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Preface by Jackson Parkhurst 2 

Toccata and Fugue in D minor — Bach by Monica Autry 3. 

Symphony No. 2. Movement IV — Brahms by Larue Tart, Frankie Talton, Jean Milleson, 

Marie Batten, Mark Armstrong, and Alex Wingate 12 

Overture to Candide — Bernstein by Tama Bouncer 35 

Notes 49 



The North Carolina Symphony Teacher's Handbook Copyright © 1995 by The North Carolina Symphony Society, 
Inc. Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, scores, 
puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

The program book and the educational concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of North 
Carolina and from the National Endowment for the Arts. As part of their commitment to education, Glaxo, Inc., 
has made a generous grant to fund conductors for music education concerts. 

The North Carolina Symphony 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, N.C. 27601 

(919)733-2750 
Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 



PREFACE 

The North Carolina Symphony's 1995-96 season marks the fiftieth year that 
the Symphony has boarded buses, trucks, and automobiles to travel to distant 
communities to play concerts for North Carolina school children. It was in the 
spring of 1946 (with the help of funds from the North Carolina Legislature's "Horn 
Tootin'" Bill) that Benjamin and Maxine Swalin along with Adeline McCall achieved 
their dream of performing admission-free concerts for students all over the state. 

Since that time we have travelled nearly one million miles and played 
thousands of concerts to millions of children. We are now performing for our third 
generation of North Carolinians. We believe that great music has a place in 
everyone's life, and we are proud of our part in making it a reality for young 
people. We want to thank everyone who has helped us perform our mission over 
the last fifty years and those who support us and attend our concerts today. 

I especially want to thank you, the music teachers of North Carolina, who 
have faithfully worked with us and supported us since the very beginning . Without 
you our work would be impossible . I believe the success we have enjoyed is largely 
because of the preparation that you give the students. Our concert is more than 
a one time field trip. The adults who come up to me in banks, grocery stores, and 
concert halls all want to tell me about going to the symphony when they were 
young and what they remember. No single performance, no matter how good, 
would make that lasting an impression. It was a dedicated, enthusiastic, and 
probably tired music teacher that made it happen. Hats off to you. 

O O O O O 

We are indebted to this year's writers of the Teachers Handbook . We 
appreciate their dedication and hard work both in their writing and in their 
presentations at the Teacher Workshop. 

Thanks also goes to Pei-An Betty Shih for her work in editing this book for 
publication. Pei-An served as an Institute of Government summer intern with us 
and proved her versatility by learning word-processing from scratch. She is a 
1995 bassoon and piano graduate of the North Carolina School of the Arts and 
plans to continue her education with an MBA degree. She comes from Taipei, 
Taiwan . 

One of this year's songs is Products of Our State sung to the tune of She'll 
Be Comin' Round the Mountain with clever words by Madge McCannon Patton. 
Madge is a 4-5th grade teacher from Greensboro and the author of North Carolina 
Ditties and Doodles . We are grateful to her for allowing us to use her song. I also 
appreciate Melinda Wilkinson's help in finding Madge and with the selection of this 
year's songs. 

As you requested overwhelmingly at last year's Teacher Workshop, we are 
changing to compact discs instead of tapes for recordings of this year's music. 
I hope this will be useful for everyone. 

I trust that you will find this Teachers Handbook helpful. I repeat that it 
is intended to be a help to you in the classroom. We do not require that you use 
all or any of the material. It is produced only to be an aid to your good teaching. 

All of us at the North Carolina Symphony thank you for your work in 
teaching our children and helping to open the joy of music for them. We wish you 
a great year, and we look forward to working together for the next fifty years. 

Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 
and Assistant Conductor 
The North Carolina Symphony 



Johann Sebastian Bach 
(1685-1750) 



Toccata and Fugue in D minor 
by Monica Autry 



About The Composer 



Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He was born into a family rich in musical 
heritage. His great-grandfather, grandfather, uncles, cousins and his own father were 
musicians of repute. Johann Sebastian received his first music lessons as a youngster from his 
father, a violinist. 

Bach's parents died when he was only ten years old. His older brother assumed 
responsibility for the young Bach, taking him to live with him and his wife. His brother, 
Christoph, was a church organist and taught Bach to play the organ as well. Bach had an 
insatiable appetite to learn more music. His brother forbade the younger Bach to use volumes 
of organ music by well known composers, saying that the music was too difficult. Johann 
Sebastian would sneak downstairs during the night and copy the music. It was a very tedious 
task to hand copy volumes of music. When his brother discovered the copies, he destroyed 
them. Bach was given a home as a child, however it sorely lacked the love and emotional 
support of caring parents. 

Bach's unusual talent was recognized by his brother and he sent him to study at St. 
Michael's Choir School at the age of fifteen. It is reported that Bach walked all the way to the 
school, about one hundred and fifty miles away. He stayed for two years, learning Greek, 
Latin, religion and music. He left St. Michael's School ready to begin his career as a 
musician. 

Bach held several music positions during his life. Unlike many other famous 
composers, Bach never lacked for employment. He was organist and music director at several 
churches in various locations of Germany. He was constantly seeking a better position with 
better pay. Bach was recognized as an excellent organist, however the church's congregation 
didn't always appreciate his style. Some congregations felt his music was too complicated and 
fancy to follow when singing. He left his church position for a short while to study music 
under another famous organist and composer, Dietrich Buxtehude. 

Bach's magnificent playing made him famous at this time, not his composing, Prince 
Leopold heard him play and asked him to come work for him in his court. Bach wanted to go, 
however, his current employer refused to let him leave his position as church organist. Bach 
persisted in asking for permission to leave. His employer became so angry that he put Bach in 
jail for breaking his agreement. After several weeks he was released from jail and went to 
work for the Prince. 



Bach was happy in his new position and enjoyed working for Prince Leopold. As the 
years passed by, he began to be filled with a desire to go back into church music. Bach felt 
his music should be an expression of his faith in God. He went back to the church world as 
musical director at St. Thomas Church and music director of the city of Leipzig. 

Bach remained in Leipzig for the rest of his life. He wrote some of his greatest music 
here. Some of the music he wrote was for organ as well as many cantatas- pieces for singers, 
organ and orchestra. While in Leipzig, Bach met King Frederick the Great. The King played 
a simple melody for Bach on the keyboard. Bach later turned the simple song into a very 



complicated and now famous piece he called, "Musical Offering. " He presented the work as a 



gift to the King. 



Bach began to go blind as he grew older. He had two unsuccessful cataract operations, 
without anesthesia! His body never quite recovered from the shock of the second operation. 
Bach continued to write music until his death. He dictated his last work, "Before Thy Throne 
with This I Come" to his son-in-law. Bach's last musical gift was written in anticipation of 



greeting his creator. 



Bach passed on his musical heritage to his children. Four of his children became well- 
known composers. The fame of his children surpassed his own fame during their lifetime. 
Johann Sebastian Bach was recognized as a great musician during his life, but his world failed 
to recognize his genius as a composer. It was almost one hundred and fifty years later before 
the profound greatness of Bach's music was realized. 



About the Music 



Toccata and Fugue in D minor was written as an organ piece. Leopold Stokowski, 
conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1912 to 1936, transcribed many of Bach's organ 
pieces for orchestra, including this one. Stokowski wished to introduce Bach's work to a 
wider audience, liberating them from organ recitals. Stokowski has been acclaimed for 
broadening Bach's appeal in a majestic and moving manner. 

Fugue- a complex musical form in which voices enter at different times in imitation but 
develop and vary throughout the piece. 

Toccata- a keyboard composition in a free style using full chords and running passages. 



Reading Comprehension Questions on the Life of Bach. 

1 . What country was Bach born in? 

2. Who was Bach's first music teacher? 

3. Who took care of Bach after the death of his parents and taught him to play the organ? 

4. What was the name of the music school Bach went to at the age of fifteen? 

5. What kind of music positions did Bach fill during his life? 

6. What was the name of the famous organist that Bach studied under? 

7. What kinds of music did Bach write? 

8. Why was Bach put in jail? 

9. What is significant about four of Bach's children? 

Lesson Plan: Call Chart for Toccata and Fugue in D minor by Johann Sebastian Bach 

Objective: Students will follow a chart identifying melodic and rhythmic fragments, 
as well as the tone colors of orchestral instruments. 

Teach: 1. Students should be able to recognize the tone colors of string, woodwind 
and brass families, as well as the timpani. 

2. Teach the words for melodies A and B in the introduction. 

3 . Review the meaning of fermata. Have students look through the call chart, 
discovering where the fermatas are. 

4. Teach the rhythmic patterns with triplets in numbers three and four of the call chart. 

5. Review the rhy thmi c fragments in numbers two, seven, eight, nine and ten of the 
call chart. 

6. Listening. Teacher will guide and call the numbers of the call chart as they are 
encountered in the music. 



Review and Closure: Play the piece again, but do not begin at the beginning. Can you find 
where we are on the chart? 



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Lesson Plan: Variation of Call Chart for Toccata and Fugue in D Minor. 

Objective: Students will identify the tone colors of orchestral instruments by holding up a 
visual for that instrument family when it is heard in the music. Students will also 
identify fermatas that are heard in the music. 

Teach: 1. Students should be somewhat familiar with the piece after listening to the call 
chart in lesson one. Make the following cards to be passed out among the students: 
strings, woodwinds, brass, harp, timpani, and fermata. Students will hold up their card 
when they hear their instrument family. Whenever a fermata is heard, hold that card 
up as well. 

2. When the orchestra "builds," have students raise their cards a row at a time. 

3 . In the ending section, have students raise their cards from low to high with the 
music. 



Lesson Plan: Write Music inspired by Toccata and Fugue in D Minor by Johann 
Sebastian Bach 

Objective: Students will write a creative story inspired by thoughts, images, and emotions 
evoked while listening to the music. 

Teach 

1 . Students will write down words and phrases that cross their minds while listening to the 

music' Let students share their papers with the class. Compile a list of words and 
phrases from the students' ideas. 

2. Have the students come up with a possible story prompt. They also need to come up with 

specific characters and settings. 

Possible Prompt 

Some friends of mine dared me to spend the night alone in an old abandoned house 
down the street. I didn't want my friends to think I was a "scaredy cat" so when night 
came I decided to do it. 




The 



se are copies you may enlarge to use as visuals 



11 



Works Cited 

Books: Basically Bach . Herbert Kupferberg. McGraw Hill Book Company, 1985. 

Harvard Dictionary of Music . Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 
1972. 

Johann Sebastian Bach: Great Man of Music. Carol Greene Children's Press, 
Chicago, 1992. 



Monica Autry teaches general music to grades K-4 at Butner Elementary School in Fort 
Bragg, North Carolina, a position she's held since 1984. She also teaches an after 
school string program for grades three and four. She received her BM from the 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She has served as minister of music in a 
local church and teaches private piano lessons. She is married to Adrian Autry and has 
two children, Megan and Cameron. 



12 



Johannes Brahms Syphony No. 2, Movement 4 

(1833-1897) by Larue Tart 

Frankie Talton 

Jean Milleson 

Marie Batten 

Mark Armstrong 

Alex Wingate 

A German composer who wrote masterpieces in almost 
every form except opera. 

Background and Beginning 

"The Classical Generations" 

The sheer number of important musicians who have been either natives or inhabitants 
of Vienna is astonishing. Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms, Strauss, 
Bruckner, Wolf, Mahler, Schoenberg, and Webern are probably the most significant, but there 
are at least a hundred more. Nowhere else in the world is there a city so saturated with the 
essence of music. 

The ruling Hapsburg emperors were passionately fond of music (some of them were 
competent composers themselves), and from early times had imported the best foreign 
musicians to court. 

The gift of music to the eighteenth century was the symphony, as its gifts to the 
seventeenth had been opera and sonata. 

The variety of conflicting elements that went into the making of Johannes Brahms as 
man and musician can be seen in the circumstances of his life from the start. The family into 
which he was born on May 7, 1833, was a devoted and unpretentious one. His father, Johann 
Jakob, who was twenty-seven at the time of Johannes' birth, played the bass and occasionally 
the horn in orchestras and bands. His mother Christiane (nee Nissen), was seventeen years 
older, and had worked as a seamstress before her late marriage in 1830. There was a 
daughter, Elise, born in 1831, and in 1835 a second son, Fritz Friedrich, arrived. 

Johannes' home background was affectionate and happy. But the domestic virtues were 
maintained against the contrast of the world outside—the squalid, dilapidated maze of narrow 
alleys and ancient wood-frame houses in Hamburg's dockland known as the Gangeviertel. As 
he grew up, his efforts to contribute to the family budget and ease the pressure of his parents' 
relative poverty led, physically, to strains that told on even his robust constitution, and 
emotionally to experiences that were to mark him permanently. 

At an early age, Brahms helped support his family by playing dance music in 
waterfront bars. He kept a book propped up on the piano so he could read while he played. 

Jakob had no doubt, from the beginning, that his sons were to be musicians, but their 
general education was not neglected. 



13 



Johannes was sent to a private school at the age of six and transferred at eleven to 
another one where Latin, French, and English shared a place on the syllabus with mathematics 
and science. It is easy to see where the foundations of a lifelong devotion to reading, to 
literature, philosophy, and indeed to all the humanities must have been laid. 

Johannes started the string instruments when he was six years old. He began piano lessons 
at the age of seven. 

By the time he was fifteen, he was making a living through music. He left Hamburg to 
travel as an accompanist to a famous Hungarian violinist, carrying in his knapsack works of his 
own. 

Brahms wasn't an instant success as a musician. At the first performance of a concerto on 
which he'd worked for four years, only three people clapped; everyone else hissed. But eventually 
his music became popular, and he was one of the few composers ever who didn't have, to take 
another job to make a living. 

He was one musician who spent less money than he earned. With his extra money, 
Brahms took care of relatives in Hamburg and any friend who needed help. His own tastes were 
simple in everything but music and food. He owned an expensive collection of original music 
manuscripts by Mozart and other composers he admired. 

Brahms got up every morning at four or five, made his own coffee with his Viennese 
coffee maker,' and went for a walk in the woods to hear the birds signing. He kept his pockets 
filled with candy and little pictures, which he handed to neighborhood children on his walks. 

Then he would get to work. Brahms worked painstakingly. His first symphony took him 
about ten years to write. He prepared meticulous manuscripts, and if he wasn't completely 
satisfied with them, he would bum them or throw the pages into the river. "It does not just come to 
you!" Brahms would say of composing— "It is torture!" 

In the course of the next ten years the remaining three symphonies appeared, the Violin 
Concerto, the Second Piano Concerto, the Double Concerto for violin and cello, and a host of 
smaller works. In 1 896 his beloved Clara Schumann died and Brahms fell ill soon after. Cancer 
of the liver was diagnosed and he died at his home in Vienna the following year. All the ships in 
Hamburg lowered their flags to half-mast that day. 



14 



JOHANNES BRAHMS 

1833-1897 

TEN STEPS TO BECOMING A COMPOSER 

1. Johannes Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, on May 7, 1833. 

2. His father was a double-bass player in a local symphony orchestra. 

3. His mother was a seamstress and cook. 

4. Brahms was one of three children. 

5. At the age of seven, Brahms began taking piano lessons. 

6. By the age of 13, Brahms had began learning musical theory. 

7. At the age of 15, Brahms gave his first formal recital. 

8. At the age of 20, Brahms left home on a concert tour as a piano accompanist. 
During this tour, Brahms played for a lot of people and met some of the most 
influential musicians of his time. 

10. As his fame spread, Brahms devoted more and more of his time to composing and less 
to his career as a performer. 



MAJOR WORKS 



Brahms wrote music for several instruments and combination of instruments. This includes 
music for strings, piano, and clarinet. He also wrote choral Works, and Orchestra Music. 
Included in his orchestral music are Four Symphonies. 

Symphony A symphony is a large orchestra work in several movements. 



SYMPHONY NO.2 IN D MAJOR 



Brahms' second symphony is known as the Pastoral Symphony. Brahms planned, sketched, 
and wrote it in a benign, sunny little Austrian village lying in the lap of Worthersee. The 
altogether unique personality of the Second symphony must owe a huge debt to this lovely 
Corinthian spot. The music portrays the serenity, inner peace, quiet joy, and gentle moods the 
composer must have experienced in that charming village. 



15 



There are four movements in the Second Symphony. During these movements, Brahms utilizes 
traditional compositional devices to develop the symphony. They include: 



Theme The basic subject matter of a piece of music. The theme can be a 

phrase, a short motive, or a full tune. 

Phrase A section of a melody or a tune. 

Motive A short fragment of melody or rhythm used in constructing a long 

section of music. 

Subject The term for the principal theme of a fugue. 

Solo A section of music featuring one instrument or player. 

Mvt. 1 A three-note introduction in the cellos introduces the first principal theme 

(horns). Some transitional material follows, including as passionate outburst by 
the violins. An eloquent song now unfolds in the cellos and violas and is 
repeated by the flutes. All this material is extended and developed with 
intensity and breadth, following which the two basic themes return. A tranquil 
coda features a beautiful solo for the horn, and the movement ends serenely 
with a quiet sustained chord in the woodwinds. 

Mvt. 2 The Pastoral nature continues into the second movement. The cellos offer a 

gentle and reflective melody which is soon taken up by horns, oboes, and flutes. 
The second theme, flutes and oboes, is in a similar lyrical vein. One other 
principal idea is presented; an expansive melody for the strings which is given 
passionate treatment. In the development of these three important subjects, the 
prevailing idyllic mood is never destroyed. 

Mvt. 3 The third movement is more of an intermezzo than a scherzo. We hear the 

principal theme immediately in the woodwinds, the cellos providing; a 
pizzicato accompaniment. Two trios follow, separated by a restatement of the 
main melody. Each of the trios is actually a variant of the theme. 



Mvt. 4 The concluding movement begins with a transparent melody for the strings. 

The full orchestra takes up this idea with vigor, leading directly to the second 
subject, which is a subdued theme for the woodwinds. Almost immediately a 
third theme is presented, a stately melody for the violins. These three themes 
are developed, altered, repeated, as an infectiously gay mood prevails. A 
jubilant statement of the opening phrase or the third theme brings the 
symphony to a vital conclusion. 



16 



Brahms symphonies are Qassical in several respect: 

1. They are laid out in the customary design of four movements, each of which 
has a form recognizably close to the Classical pattern. 

2. They make use of the Classical techniques of counterpoint and motivic 
development. 

3. The have no specified program, that is, they have no story associated with 
them. 

At the same time, Brahms symphonies are Romantic in their harmonic idiom, in their full, 
multicolored orchestral sound, and in other general features of their musical language. 

Brahms' style of composing is distinguished by various elements. They include: 

1 . A lyrical melodic line. 

2. A Ballad-like quality of Romantic strangeness. 

3. A Fundamental respect for tradition. 

4. His music represents a trend of the revival or order and form which is also 
found in the works of Schumann, and Berlioz. 










■ *W£jsi* - 



17 

FACTS ON BRAHMS 

1. Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, on May 7, 1883. 

2. Brahms' father, Johann Jakob, played the double bass. 

3. Brahms' mother, Christiane Nissen, was a seamstress. 

4. He had one brother and one sister. 

5. The three B's were Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms. 

6. Brahms never married. 

7. He began playing the strings at age 6. 

8. He started playing the piano at age 7. 

9. Brahms' first piano teacher was Otto Cossel. 

10. Brahms' first strings teacher was his father. 

11. Brahms wrote in every musical form except opera. 

12. Brahms was a notoriously loud snorer. 

13. Hans von Bulow called Brahms' First Symphony "Beethoven's Tenth" (meaning 
Brahms' music was the next step after Beethoven). 

14. Brahms wrote "Brahms' Lullaby," also known as "Lullaby and Good Night." 

15. Brahms loved food and coffee. 

16. At his first performance of a concerto (that took him four years to write), only three 
people clapped. 

17. Brahms dressed strictly for comfort. 

18. He played with toy soldiers until he was 30. 

19. He was making a living through his music by the age of 15. 

20. The foundation of his life was Clara Schumann who was 14 years older than he. 

21. It took him 10 years to compose his first symphony, but waited until he was 40 to write 
it. The reason it took so long was that Brahms said, "I feel Beethoven staring over 

my shoulder. 

22. In the next 10 years he wrote 3 symphonies and many other concertos. 

23. Brahms died in 1897 of liver cancer at the age of 64. 

24. In Vienna they declared a holiday for his funeral. 



18 



25. All the ships in Hamburg lowered their flags to half-mast for his funeral. 

26. Brahms did not have a happy childhood because his parents argued and they had little 
money. 

27. Brahms gave his first performance at age 14. 

28. Brahms had no formal musical training. 

29. Brahms liked to write his music in pairs. 

30. Liszt listened to Brahms play but Brahms fell asleep when Liszt played. 

3 1 . The four periods of Brahms music are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. 

32. Brahms supported his family by playing in bars and theaters. 

33. Brahms lived in Vienna, Austria. 

34. Being a penny pincher, Brahms wouldn't buy new clothes until they could no longer be 
patched. 

35. His apartment was very messy. No one could touch anything. 

36. Brahms was a kind man who loved children. 

37. Beethoven was Brahms' favorite composer. 

38. There is a monument in Vienna for Brahms. 

3 9 . Brahms' father did not support him in his music. 

40. His Symphony No. 2 was written while he was staying at Portschach by a lake and it glows 
with the charm of the Austrian countryside in which he was very happy, fie returned to it 
many times. This idyllic work is his "Pastoral Symphony." It was written during his 
"autumn" period of composition (1868-1890). 

41 . Brahms used syncopation and hemiola rhythms in his music. 

42. The texture of his music is thick, with the melodies moving freely from outer voice to inner 
voice lines. 

43. He wrote dignified themes that were serious or elastic with humor and scored his music to 
show the eloquence of instrumental tone color. 

44. He was a conservative among Romantic composers. He wrote "Absolute" music, a return 
to discipline, order, and form. 

45. The fourth movement of his Symphony No. 2 in D Major is approximately 8/4 minutes 
long. 



19 



CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES - GAMES 



With the symphony student booklet, the Brahms facts sheet, and your own musical 
information sheet, several games are available to play. Some include Relay, "Brahms" Baseball, 
Musical Jeopardy, and Quiz Bowl. One original game is P I C MUSIC. This game can be played 
after the study of Brahms or at the conclusion of all the Symphony Studies. 

P I C MUSIC 

P I C MUSIC stands for: P Pieces (symphony compositions) 

I Instruments of the orchestra 
C Composers 
MUSIC /* Listening/identifying 

Object of the game: To be the first team to get 1 00 points. 

Number of Players: Entire class; individuals make up 2 teams 

Game Materials: Cards with letters P, I, C, Music / . Have enough for entire class plus 
extras. Tape player, tape of Brahms Symphony 2, Movement IV (or all tapes of symphony 
compositions studied if game is used for evaluation). 

Game Play: Before the game each player pulls out one of the 4 cards. The class then 
divides into 2 teams. The MUSIC / card is WILD. This card has double points since the 
question involves listening to and identifying the music. Use the chalkboard or large poster 
for scoring points for each team. Each card/category is worth 1 points, except the MUSIC /^ 
card, which is worth 20 points. As teacher, you ask the questions previously selected for 
each category. Select a time limit. If a team member incorrectly answers a question, then 
the same question is given to the opposing team member holding the same card/category. 
If that team member also incorrectly responds, then give the answer and continue the game 
with the next card holder. If any team member not holding the question card at that time 
gets too loud, or tries to coax an answer, call "Foul" and deduct 10 points from that team's 
score. This usually helps keep behavior under control. The first team to get 1 00 points 
wins the game! I usually reward the winning players with a "Sweet Tart" (in more ways 
than one)! 

The students also like to "compose" a jingle tune/theme to play before the game starts to 
introduce each team, and/or to play at certain intervals during the game. HAVE FUN! 



20 

RELAY GAME 

Instructions: Divide into teams. Call the question. Run to chair. First one to sit gets to answer. 
Keep running score to determine winner. 

1 . Where was Brahms bora? Hamburg, Germany 

2. What is Brahms' first name? Johannes 

3. What instrument did his father play? Double Bass 

4. What instrument did Brahms play at age 7? Piano 

5. Did Brahms have a happy childhood? No. Parents had little money and argued. 

6. How old was Brahms when he gave his first piano recital? 14 

7. Did Brahms have much formal musical training? No. Learned on his own. 

8. What composer helped Brahms by being his musical advisor and saying, "Hats off, 
gentlemen! A Genius!"? Robert Schumann 

9. Did Brahms ever marry? No 

1 0. Who was Clara Schumann? A friend who played his works at her piano recitals. 

1 1 . How did Brahms like to compose his music? In pairs 

1 2. What composer listened to Brahms play, but when he played for Brahms, Brahms fell 
asleep? Liszt 

1 3 . What was the only musical form that Brahms did not write in? Opera 

14. What are the four periods of Brahms' music? spring, summer, autumn, winter 

15. How did young Brahms help support his parents and siblings? Playing piano in bars and 
theaters. 

16. Where did Brahms live? Vienna, Austria 

17. Was Brahms a penny pincher? Yes, wouldn't buy new clothes until the old ones were 
covered with patches. 

1 8. What did his apartment look like? Messy, no one was allowed to touch anything. 

19. What was Brahms' hobby? Collecting and playing with toy soldiers. 

20. Why did Brahms wait until he was over 40 to write his first symphony? He said, "I feel 
Beethoven staring over my shoulder. 



21 



21. Was Brahms a kind man? Yes. 

22. What did Brahms like do other than play with his soldiers? He loved to walk around the 
city and in the Swiss Alps. He loved to eat and drink coffee in cafes with his friends. 

23. Was Brahms a successful musician? No. As a teacher, he was a failure; as a conductor, he 
was ineffective, and as a composer, he was too far ahead of his day. 

24. Did Brahms' father support him in his music? No 

25. How old was Brahms when he died? 64 

26. Who was Brahms' favorite composer? Beethoven 

27. Is there a monument in Vienna honoring Brahms? Yes 

28. What was the most popular form of music in the 1 8th century? Symphony 



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COMPOSER 

UNSOLD I ERS 

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SCORE 

SYMPHONY 

GERMANY 

CHICORY 

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23 



BRAHMS DRAMA ACTIVITY 
OBJECTIVE: To develop student creativity through improvisation and group work. 

PROCEDURE: 

1 . Place in a bag all the props needed to present the following incidents in Brahms' life. 

2. Number each bag 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

3. Divide students into four groups and have one student draw a card from a hat for the 
group. 

4. With the props from their bag and the card describing a certain incident in Brahms' life, 
the students will prepare a skit to present to the rest of theVlass. If possible, involve all 
students in the presentation whether it be acting, sound effects, etc. 

The following information may be printed on an index card for each group. , 

CARD ONE: After many hours of wandering (in the Vienna woods) Brahms and his 
friends had come to an inn and asked for black coffee. The coffee was made with chicory- 
an economy exercised by many cooks-and Brahms did not like chicory in his coffee. He 
called the proprietress to his table and said, My dear old lady, have you some chicory?' 
When she said she had, he continued in an even more gracious tone, 'It's not possible! 
May I see it?' The old woman retreated to the kitchen and returned with two packages of 
chicory which she handed to Brahms. He looked them over solemnly and inquired, 'Is that 
all you have?' When she said yes, he pocketed both boxes and said, 'Weli, now you can go 
back and make us some black coffee.' 

CARD TWO: Brahms and a friend went to a motel and retired to room No. 11, and it 
was his instant and most ardent endeavour to go to sleep before Brahms did, as he knew 
from past experience that otherwise Brahms' imperinently healthy habit of snoring would 
mean death to any hope of sleep on his part. 

His delight at seeing Brahms take up a book and read in bed was equalled only by his 
horror when, after a few minutes, he saw him blow out the light of his candle. A few 
seconds later the room was fairly ringing with the most unearthy noises issuing from 
Brahms' nasal and vocal organs. What should he do? He was in despair, for he wanted 
sleep, and moreover, had to leave for Berlin early next morning. A sudden inspiration 
made him remember room No. 42. He got up, and went downstairs to the lodge of the 
porter, whom, not without some difficulty, he succeeded in rousing from a sound sleep. 
Explaining cause and object, he made the porter open room No. 42 for him. After a good 
night's rest, He returned, early in the morning, to the room in which he had left Brahms. 

Brahms was awake and, affectionately looking at him, with the familiar little twinkle in 
his eye and mock seriousness in his voice, said to him, well knowing what had driven his 
friend away, 'Oh Henschel, when I awoke and found your bed empty, I said to myself, 
"There! He's gone and hanged himself!" 'But really, why didn't you throw a boot at me?' 

The idea of him throwing a boot at Brahms! 



24 






CARD THREE: Brahms could be sarcastic and domineering at times. And very tactless: 
Once he was said to have excused himself from a dinner party by saying, 'I beg a 
thousand pardons if there should be anyone here whom I have not insulted tonight!' 

CARD FOUR: He wore flannel shirts and short baggy pants that often showed several 
inches of checked cotton underwear. Another way you could catch a glimpse of his 
underwear was to watch him conduct an orchestra. He sometimes forgot to fasten his 
suspenders, and when he conducted, he'd have to grab his pants before they fell down. 




2 : An autographed photo-portrait of the composer 



25 



IN SEARCH OF A GREAT COMPOSER 





ACTIVITY ONE: 

On the next page are messages about a famous composer. Use these musical notes and 

symbols to decode each message. 



ACTIVITY TWO: 

1 . On the lines provided below write several sentences about Johannes Brahms. 

2. On the back of this sheet write out the messages using the special code for each 
sentence. 

3. Ask a classmate to solve your coded messages. 



26 



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29 



CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES - CARTOON 



Objective: Creative Writing/Listening 

Materials: Paper, pencils, Cartoon Activity Sheet, tape player, tape of Brahms Symphony No. 2, 
Movement IV. 

Procedure: Introduce the music by using the background material presented at the beginning of 
this study. Students have a deeper appreciation of the music after learning something about the 
composer and the setting which inspired the music. The music is "Absolute," so several listenings 
are encouraged. Ask students to write down ideas about what they hear and fcel as they listen to 
the music. Encourage them to discuss their ideas about the mood, texture, themes, instruments, 
dynamics, melodies, form, tempo, meter, etc. This will enable the students to find for themselves 
the ingredients which contribute to the uniqueness of this piece. Present the Cartoon Activity 
Sheet. Students are to listen to the piece while they fill in the balloons. Share the cartoons with the 
class. What is Brahms trying to "tell us" in his music? 




30 






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LISTENING LESSON USING ABSTRACT ART 

31 



Materials Needed: 



Large pad of white paper on an easel or length of white paper attached to board or wall: 
colored markers or crayons, recording of Brahms' Symphony No. 2, Movement IV, 
suitable listening equipment, i.e., cassette player 

Procedure: 

A volunteers) is asked to create an abstract drawing while listening to the musical selection. 
She/he is to choose colors and create designs based on how the music "sounds" and makes her/him 
feel. As the music is being played, the subject chronologically creates designs on the paper to 
reflect the music. Helpful suggestions are listed below: 

Stress that "abstract" is the desired type of artwork; words and concrete pictures are 
discouraged. 

Providing several examples suggests variety; showing the examples and removing them 
from view discourages copying and encourages creativity. 

Because the recording is lengthy (over 8 minutes), allow adequate paper and room for the 
artwork. 

Variations: 

This activity may be done as seat work to allow all students to be active participants. Each student 
should receive crayons or markers and a sheet of paper. As preparation for the lesson, each 
student should fold the paper in half and then fold it in fourths to have a sequence of sections. As 
the music is played, the teacher may signal that the music is changing, thereby encouraging the 
students to begin a new section. I prefer using paper that is long and narrow, i.e., 6" x 1 8", so that 
the folded sections are in left to right sequence and not top to bottom. 

COMPETENCY GOALS: ARTS EDUCATION 
MUSIC: Grade 5 
1 .3 The learner will participate freely in total program. 

2.20 The learner will recognize that patterns of sounds may be relatively louder or 
softer than others. 

2.2 1 The learner will be aware that individual sounds or groups of sounds may 
become louder or softer. 

222 The learner will verbalize about the effect of dynamics on the mood of the music. 

3 . 1 The learner will be aware of her/his own creative capabilities. 

4.42 The learner will be aware of the effect of tempo and dynamics. 

4.58 The learner will control gross and fine motor movements as needed. 

5.6 The learner will know that music is related to the other arts. 

5.7 The learner will know that each art from is made up of basic elements. 

VISUAL ARTS: Grades K-5 

1 .3 The learner is eager to do and see art 

2.3 The learner understands the role personal perception and observations play in art. 

2.4 The learner understands the role creativity plays in art. 



32 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cross, Milton. Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music . Vol. 1, Doubleday 
and Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, NY, 1953. 

Gal, Hanes. Johannes Brahms. His Work and Personality . Alfred A. Knopt, New York, 
1963. 

Gaskins, Malinda. Brahms. Johannes . Symphony #4 in E Minor Op. 98, Third Movement, 
Allegro Giocoso, The North Carolina Symphony Teachers Handbook 1990-91. 

Hamilton, Clive Unger (editor). The Music Makers . Harry Abrams, Inc., New York, 1979. 

Jacobson, Bernard. The Music of Johannes Brahms . Associated University Presses, Inc., 
Cranbury, New Jersey, 1977. 

Krull, Kathleen. Lives of the Musicians: Good Times. Bad Times (and What the Neighbors 
Thought) . Harcourt, Brace, and Co., New York, 1992. 

LeBrecht, Norman. The Book of Musical Anecdotes . MacMillan, Inc., New York, 1985. 



Larue Tart, Frankie Talton, Jean Milleson, Marie Batten, Mark Armstrong, and 
Alex Wingate are all music specialists from Wayne County. 






35 



Leonard Bernstein Overture to Candide 

(1918-1990) by Tama Bouncer 

About The Composer 

Leonard Bernstein (burn'-styn) was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts on August 25, 
1918. He began piano lessons at about the age of ten. 

At Harvard University he studied the piano with Helen Coates and Gebhard, and he 
took other music courses with Edward Burlingame Hill and Piston before graduating in 1939. 
For the next two years he attended the Curtis Institute. Conducting became his major interest, 
and during the summers of 1940 and 1941, he studied at Tanglewood with KousSevitzky, who 
was so impressed by his talent that he asked him to be his assistant there in 1942. 

Conductor, composer, pianist, lecturer, television personality and author, Bernstein 
was called a musical renaissance man. He was best known as a conductor since his 
professional debut in 1943, when he replaced the indisposed Bruno Walter as the conductor of 
the New York Philharmonic in a program that Bernstein directed without rehearsal. Later 
guest appearances with major American and European orchestras showed him to be one of the 
most talented conductors of his generation. 

He was the musical director of the New York City Center Orchestra from 1945 to 1947. 
In 1948 he joined the staff at Tanglewood, where he succeeded Koussevitzky as head of the 
conducting department; he was also on the staff of Brandeis University. He was musical 
director and conductor of the New York Philharmonic, the first American to hold this post, 
from 1958 to 1969, at which time he was named conductor laureate for life. He conducted 
opera at La Scala, the Metropolitan Opera and the Vienna State Opera. 

He had a dynamic personality with an acute musical intelligence and a large repertoire. 
Bernstein reached a large audience with his numerous national television apperances, most 
notably as introducer and conductor of the young people's concerts, which brought him 
enormous popularity. 

Bernstein pursued an impressive career as a composer of both serious and popular 
music. (Excerpt from THE INFINITE VARIETY OF MUSIC by Leonard Bernstein c. 1966 
"I am a fanatic music lover. I can't live one day without hearing music, playing it, studying it 
or thinking about it. And this is quite apart from my professional role as a musician; I am a 
fan, a committed member of the musical public. And in this role of simple music lover, I 
confess, freely though unhappily, that at this moment, as of this writing, God forgive me, I 
have far more pleasure in following the musical adventures of Simon & Garfunkel or of the 
Association singing "Along Comes Mary" than I have in most of what is being written now 
by the whole community of "avant-garde" composers. This may not be true a year from now, 
or even by the time these words appear in print; but right now, on the 21st of June, 1966, that 
is how I feel. Pop music seems to be the only area where there is to be found unabashed 
vitality, the fun of invention, the feeling of fresh air. Everything else suddenly seems old- 
fashioned: electronic music, serialism, chance music-they have already acquired the musty 
odor of academicism. Even jazz seems to have ground to a painful halt. And tonal music lies 
in abeyance, dormant. No, I will not look around me at the busy but barren musical scenery 
and pack myself off into hibernation until the buds appear. I will stay right here and loudly 
proclaim the infinite variety of music." 



36 



From his earliest years as a conductor and pianist, Bernstein had been pursuing a 
parallel career as a composer of concert pieces and of works for the musical theatre. The 
Clarinet Sonata, his first published composition, was composed shortly after he left the Curtis 
Institute, and the song cycle "I Hate Music" was first performed by Tourel at New York Town 
Hall in November 1943. His first Symphony, performed in spring 1944 in Boston and New 
York, was chosen by the New York Music Critics' Circle as the best new American orchestral 
work of 1943-1944. In the same season his first ballet, FANCY FREE, with choreography by 
Robbins, was introduced by Ballet Theater at the Metropolitan Opera House. Its success led 
Robbins and Bernstein to use the scenario (dealing with three sailors on one-day shore leave in 
New York) as the basis for a full-length Broadway musical, ON THE TOWN, which ran for 
463 performances. During the 1950s Bernstein composed mainly for the stage and screen, but 
the 1960s saw two large-scale concert works: the Symphony no. 3 and the CHICHESTER 
PSALMS, commissioned by Chichester Cathedral for the 1965 music festival. For the 
opening of the John F. Kennedy Center of the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C. (September 
1971), he was commissioned, at the suggestion of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, to write a 
dedicatory work, MASS. 

Most of Bernstein's big non-theatrical works deal with religious themes: many vocal 
pieces employ biblical or liturgical texts; and he has said that the symphonies reflect personal 
spiritual concerns ('me down here looking up to find Him') and that they are, in general, 
'about the crisis in faith.' These works are further related in that they require large or 
unusual forces and share a similar musical style, one that is a conglomerate of several styles. 
A brilliant passage of stylized 1940s jazz, a stark chorale, a shapely pop-ballad tune, a 
thunderous finale of Mahlerian proportions - all are components of the characteristic Bernstein 
mixture. 

His major works include three symphonies: the JEREMIAH(1944), THE AGE of 
ANXIETY(1949) and the KADDISH(1963); three ballets, FANCY FREE (1944), 
FACSIMILE (1946) and DYBBUK (1974); CHICHESTER PSALMS (1965), a choral work; 
and MASS. He also composed music for the Broadway musicals ON THE TOWN (1944), 
WONDERFUL TOWN (1952), CANDIDE (1956) and WEST SIDE STORY (1957). 

An expanded CANDIDE was successfully reprogrammed as an opera in 1982. 
Bernstein's other operas include TROUBLE IN TAHITI (1952) and its sequel, A QUIET 
PLACE (1983). Bernstein was the author of YOUNG PEOPLE'S CONCERTS (1970), a 
collection of his television talks; THE UNANSWERED QUESTION (1976), his Charles Eliot 
Norton lectures at Harvard; FINDINGS (1982); THE JOY OF MUSIC and THE INFINITE 
VARIETY OF MUSIC. 

Leonard Bernstein died October 14, 1990. 



37 



About Candide 



Voltaire's extravagant, satiric saga, with its mockery of 'the best of all possible 
worlds' and the innocent hero who believes in such a thing, was at first made into a comic 
operetta by playwright Lillian Hellman set to music by Leonard Bernstein with lyrics from the 
pens of three brilliant rhymers - John Latouche (who died, at the age of 38, shortly before the 
show opened), the Pulitzer prize-winning poet, Richard Wilbur and Dorothy Parker. The 
resultant piece was produced by Ethel Linder Reiner and Lester Osterman, Jr. at New York's 
Martin Beck Theater but failed in 73 performances. A London version in 1959 closed after 60 
performances. 

In 1974, a rewritten version by Hugh Wheeler, which emphasized the comic 
extravagances of the text, was produced by Harold Prince and the Chelsea Theater in 
Brooklyn, New York. The musical score had been altered along with the text, and additional 
lyrics supplied by Stephen Sondheim. The now highly colourful show was> mounted by Prince 
on a set consisting of multiple acting areas, arranged around the audience, and this time the 
reaction was positive. This production of Candide moved to the Broadway Theater, which was 
suitably reconstructed to allow the same style of presentation, and it remained there for 740 
performances, establishing the show and its new version as one of the most interesting and 
intelligent of its time. 

At the Castle Thunder-ten-Tronck, Westphalia, the philosopher Dr. Pangloss teaches 
the baronial family's daughter Cunegonde, son Maxmilian and illegitimate nephew Candide his 
optimistic creed that all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. He even encourages 
Candide 's marriage to Cunegonde, for all the problems it will bring. 

In the middle of the marriage ceremony war between Westphalia and Hesse intervenes, 
and Cunegonde is carried off. Candide 's troubles have begun. 

He reaches Lisbon in time for the great earthquake. There the Inquisition apparently 
kills Pangloss. Moving on to Paris, Candide discovers Cunegonde living in kept luxury, 
determined to: Glitter And Be Gay." 

Candide, Cunegonde and an Old Lady they have met are carried off on a slave ship to 
South America. In Buenos Aires the governor proposes to make Cunegonde his mistress, and 
with the help of the "easily assimilated" Old Lady, he convinces Candide to seek his fortune 
elsewhere. 

Candide heads for Eldorado, where he does, in fact, find a fortune. Returning to claim 
Cunegonde, he learns she has fled. The ship in which he sets out after her sinks, so the 
despairing Candide makes his way to Venice. 

He discovers the Old Woman working as a shill in a gambling house. She too is less 
confident and tinged with bitterness. Candide discovers Cunegonde reduced to a scrubwoman. 
He returns with her to Westphalia, where he encounters the supposedly dead Pangloss. But 
Candide can no longer subscribe to the philosopher's all-accepting view of life. He and 
Cunegonde retire to live quietly and to make their garden grow. 

The score of Candide was one which thoroughly merited the description of comic 
operetta. It included ensemble and orchestral music of a quality and adventurousness rarely 
seen on the postwar musical stage. Bernstein created a pyrotechnic, eclectic score that moved 
from stately 18th-century forms to modern tangos and jazz. The most popular, durable bit of 
his work turned out to be the overture. 



Measures 1-4 
Measure 5 
Measure 6 

Measures 7-9 



LISTENING GUIDE 

Fanfare played by brass and woodwinds in <£\ 



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woodwinds 



pattern played by the 



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f f f £ 1 f f f M r f T £ pattern played by the horns 



Measures 10-46 
Measures 47-6 1 

Measures 62-82 



Theme A is played by the flutes, oboes, clarinets, violins and 

violas. 

Theme B is played by the trumpets and trombones; this section is 

repeated 

n 
-") 

Bridge : measure 63 is in Jt. meter; measure 64 returns to ^__ 
and solos are played by the flutes, clarinets,oboes, bass clarinets 
and bassoon; measures 75-79 piccolos and flutes only; 
measures 80-82 descending pattern is played by the flutes and 
clarinets. 



Measures 83-133 



Measures 134-139 



Measures 140-160 



The rhythm pattern is written so that every third measure is in z_ 
meter. 

Theme C (ccmtabile) is played by the clarinets, bass clarinets and 

violas in measures 83-94, by the oboes, clarinets, bassoons and 

violins in measures 95-106 and by the flutes, oboes, violins, 

violas, and cellos in measures 107-1 18. 

Call and response in measures 119-121 between the (piccolos and 

clarinets) and violins in %_ 

In measures 123- 1 33 the theme is played by the flutes, oboes, bass 

clarinets, bassoons, trumpets, violins and violas. 

Cf with brass fanfare accompanied by oboes, low woodwinds, 
timpani and strings 

Theme A is played by flutes and oboes in measures 147 and 148; 

violin solo in measures 147-152; dynamic marking oisubitoff for 
horns and strings in measure 153; full orchestra is^in measure 
154; glissandos by piccolos, flutes, oboes, violins, violas and 
clarinets in measure 155 and clarinets, violins and violas in 
measure 157. 



Measures 161-177 
Measures 178-201 
Measures 202-207 
Measures 208-230 



Measures 231-287 



Theme B without the repeat 

Theme C 

Call and response between (flutes and oboes) and violins 

Theme D is played pp by flutes and oboes; staccato pattern played 

by bassoons and strings play pizzacato pp in measures 208-2 15; 

piccolos, flutes, oboes, violins play theme in measures 216-230; 

measure 230 in %, . 

Codetta: The following rhythm pattern is heard in measures 23 1 - 



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a fanfare similar to the fanfare heard in measures 1 34- 1 39 is played 
^Tin measures 255-258; the pattern^ Mil T_l LiL ls played 

by the woodwinds in measures 258-260; Theme A is heard in 
measures 260-266; the bass clarinets, bassoons and strings 
crescendo in measures 267-270; Theme B is played in measures 
271-278; a portion of Theme C is played in measures 279-283; 



the patten^ J"3 J J J J I J * ~ 1 i ? * 1 J 



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40 



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42 



CANDIDE 
Excerpt from "Oh, 
(Duet) 
Lyrics by Richard Wilhur and Music 



Happy We" 

by Leonard Bernstein 



Candide : 

Cunegonde . 

Candide : 
Cunegonde , 
Candide : 
Cunegonde . 

Candide : 

Cunegonde . 



Candide : 
Cunegonde 
Candide : 
Cunegonde 



Candide : 

Cunegonde 
Candide : 
Cunegonde 
Candide : 
Cunegonde 

Candide : 



Cunegonde , 
Candide : 
Cunegonde , 
Candide : 



Soon, when we feel we can afford it, 

We'll build a modest little farm. 
We'll buy a yacht and live aboard it, 

Rolling in luxury and stylish charm 
Cows and chickens 
Social whirls 

Peas and cabbage 
Ropes of pearls. 

Soon, there ' 11 be little ones beside us 

We'll have a sweet Westphalian home. 
Somehow we'll grow as rich as Midas 

We'll live in Paris when we're not in 
Rome . 
Smiling babies 
Marble halls 

Sunday picnics 
Costume balls. 



Oh, won't my robes of silk and satin 
Be chic! 

I'll have all that I desire. 
Pangloss will tutor us in Latin and Greek 
while we sit before the fire. 
Glowing rubies 

Glowing logs 
Faithful servants 

Fai thful dogs 
We'll round the world enjoying high life 

All will be pink champagne and gold. 
We'll lead a rustic and a shy life 

Feeding the pigs and sweetly growing 
old 
Breast of peacock 
Apple pie 
I love marriage 
So do I. 



(The melody for this duet is theme C of the overture.) 



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44 



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DIRECTIONS: Begin with the Letter L Go around the paper and write down every 
second letter in the blanks in each statement AH letters will be used and there will 
be a letter in each blank. 



1. 



the music for Candkte. 

2. The 

3. 



composed 



to Candkte has become familiar to concertgoers. 



, the hero of the musical, learns that perfection 



can never be attained and that one must try to do one's best. 



4. Bernstein was commissioned to write 



for the September 1 971 opening 



of the John F. Kennedy Center of the Performings Arts in Washington, D.C. 



best-known works. 

6. Leonard Bernstein was a 

lecturer, television personality and author. 

7. Bernstein wrote three 



is one of Bernstein's 



..composer, pianist, 



8. Candkte is based on a satire by. 

9. Candkte is a 



10. At the end of the play, Candkte and 

Kve quietly and make their garden grow. 

11. Theme C in the Candkte Overture is based on the duet 



in 2 acts, 
retire to 



12. Leonard Bernstein was the 



to hold the post of music director and conductor (1958 -1969) of the New York 
Philharmonic. 



o|gj_ij^QlxL*tWMElgl«J-^'.P- SP l v * 1 0|T|C iBiliE 






45 



VOCABULARY 

1 . ARCO playing with the bow 

2 . PIZZICATO plucking the strings 

3 . GLISSANDO .a difficult virtuoso effect produced on the violin by a rapid 

succession of minute distinct movements of the hand 

4. CRESCENDO to gradually get louder 

5. FF (fortissimo) very loud 

6. ALLEGRO a fast tempo 

7. MARCATO marked or stressed 

8. DIMINUENDO to gradually get softer 

9. F (forte) loud 

10. P(soft) soft 

1 1 . MF (mezzoforte) moderately loud 

12. SUBITO DOLCE suddenly sweetly or softly 

1 3 . MP (mezzopiano) moderately soft 

14. PPP (pianisimo) very, very soft 

15. CANTABILE in a singing style 

16. ESPRESSIVO expressively 

17. SOLO in orchestral scores, a passage intended to stand out 

18. UNISON performance of the same melody by various instruments or the 

whole orchestra at the same time 

19. STACCATO detached; notes played in a short, crisp manner 

20. POCO A POCO little by little 

21 . DUET a composition for two performers of equal importance with 

or without accompaniment 



46 



■ Vocabulary Review 

1 . suddenly sweetly or softly 

IOUBTS CDOLE 

2. playing with the bow 

ROCA 

3. in a singing style 

ECATABILN 

4. in orchestral scores, a passage intended to stand out 

OSOL 

5. a composition for two performers of equal importance with or 

TDUE without accompaniment 

6. plucking the strings 

CAZPIZTOA 

7. to gradually get louder 

DRECNSCEO 

8. performance of the same melody by various instruments or 

the whole orchestra at the same time 

9. little by little 

OOCP A COOP 

10. __. a fast tempo 

LGAELRO 



47 



RELATED ACTIVITIES 

1. MUSIC (BINGO): Have students make playing cards using words from the word list. 

2. CONCENTRATION: Select 15 or more terms to duplicate on index cards. Place the 
cards face down on a table or on the floor. Have the students turn the cards over to 
locate the matches. 

This can also be done on a wall chart by using library book pockets to hold the index 
cards. 

3. MAKE A SCENE: Students are to draw a scene representing each of the themes heard 
in Candide. Fold an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper in half. Borders can either be drawn by 

the students or made by using the Print Shop. Have 2 frames on each side of the paper. 
Some students may choose to write a short story about the music instead of drawing 
pictures. 







WORD LIST 




arco 

piano 

Candide 

mezzoforte 

conductor 

Leonard Bernstein 


glissando 
cantabiie 
Cunegonde 
mezzopiano 
composer 
duet 


crescendo 

solo 

Voltaire 

fortissimo 

symphony 

forte 


allegro 
unison 
Tanglewood 
diminuendo 
comic operetta 
marcato ~ 


pizzicato 
Mass 


staccato 

West Side Story 


pianissimo 


overture 




ANSWER KEY 





Activity 1: 

1. Leonard Bernstein 

2. Overture 

3. Candide 

4. Mass 

5. West Side Story 

6. Conductor 

7. Symphonies 

8. Voltaire 

9. Comic Operetta 

10. Cunegonde 

11. "Oh Happy We" 

12. First American 



Activity 2: 

1. Subito Dolce 

2. Arco 

3. Cantabiie 

4. Solo 

5. Duet 

6. Pizzicato 

7. Crescendo 

8. Unison 

9. Poco a poco 

10. Allegro 






48 



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49 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Gerald Boardman, American Musical Theatre: A Chronicle. Oxford University Press, 1978 

Kurt Ganzl, The Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre . Schirmer Books, 1994 

Stanley Green, Broadway Musicals Show by Show . Hal Leonard Books, 1985 

Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1992 

Microsoft Corporation, "Leonard Bernstein," 1994 

Stanley Sadie, Editor: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . Macmillan 
Publishers, Ltd., 1980 



Tama R. Bouncer teaches music K-5 at Swift Creek Elementary School in Wake, County. 
She received her Bachelor of Music degree from UNC-Greensboro and her Master of Music 
degree from the University of Oregon. She is the organist/choir director for the Cathedral and 
Senoir Choirs and the pianist for the Children's Choir at Rush Metropolitan A.M.E. Zion 
Church. She and her husband John reside in Raleigh with their four children Lauren, 
Christine, Elaina and Aaron. 

She is assisted by Monica Keele Jones who teaches music K-5 at Brooks Elementary School 
and Elizabeth Chance who teaches music K-5 at Millbrook Elementary School 
in Wake County. 



NOTES 



Copies of Your North C a rolina Symphony Book . T he Teacher s Handbook, 
and recordings of the music on this year's program can be purchased" from the 
Symphony office. Write to The North Carolina Symphony, Attention: Lanita 
Mattison, 2 East South Street, Raleigh, NC 27601. Our telephone number is 
(919) 733-9536. Fax (919) 733-9920. 

Please place orders early enough to allow for two weeks delivery time. 
Materials are available as long as supplies last. 

Be sure to check other sources for information on this year's compositions 
and composers. All Night, All. Fay can be found in several music textbooks with 
related activities. The Bach Toccata and Fugue is featured on Walt Disney's 
Fantasia with footage of Leopold Stokowsky shaking Mickey Mouse's hand: 

We want to thank all the music educators who contributed to this yea; > 
Teachers Handbook for their cooperation and enthusiasm. 

We encourage you to fill out the comment sheet on the next page 



50 



COMMENTS 

The North Carolina Symphony welcomes your criticisms and compliments on our 
education program. Please use this sheet and return it to the address below . 

Thank You 

Please tell us what you think about 

The Teacher Handbook: 



The student booklet: 



The workshop: 






The education concert: 



Other : 



Do you have suggestions for songs? 



Are you interested in writing for the Teachers Handbook ? 
If so, please give your name and phone number. 



Mail to: Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 

The North Carolina Symphony 
2 East South Street 
Raleigh, NC 27601 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



3 3091 00748 3886 



1